Airway Evaluation


Between 1 – 3% of patients who require endotracheal intubation have airways that make intubation difficult. Recognizing those patients who may have a difficult airway allows the paramedic to proceed with caution and to keep as many options open as possible. It also allows the paramedic to prepare additional equipment (such as the bougie and BIAD) that may not ordinarily be part of a standard airway kit.


The mnemonic LEMON is useful in evaluating patients for signs that may be consistent with a difficult airway and should raise the paramedic’s index of suspicion.


Evaluating for the difficult airway (LEMON)


Look Externally



Evaluate 3-3-2 Rule










Neck Mobility